Unit 1 | Reading and Thinking
WHY DO WE CELEBRATE FESTIVALS
Festivals are celebrated all around the world. They have a wide range of origins, such as the seasons of the year, religions, famous figures, and important events. Every festival has its different customs and unique charms. However, no matter how different they may seem, all over the world, the spirit of sharing joy, gratitude, love, or peace is common in all festivals.
Of all the traditional festivals, the harvest festival can be found in almost every culture. This important agricultural festival takes place after all the crops have been gathered in. People celebrate to show that they are grateful for the year’s supply of food. In ancient Egypt, the harvest festival was celebrated during the springtime—the Egyptian harvest season. It featured a parade and a great feast with music, dancing, and sports. Today, in some European countries, people decorate churches and town halls with flowers and fruit, and get together to celebrate over a meal. During the Mid-Autumn Festival in China, families gather to admire the shining moon and enjoy delicious mooncakes.
Customs play a significant role in festivals, but sometimes they can change over time. With the development of modern society and the spread of new ideas, some traditions may fade away and others may be established. One example is the typical Chinese Spring Festival custom of lighting firecrackers to drive away the evil spirits and celebrate the new year. Nowadays, many big cities have given up this custom in order to avoid air pollution. Another example is Halloween, which slowly became an exciting festival for children, in spite of its religious origins.
Festivals are becoming more and more commercial, with business taking advantage of the celebrations Online shopping websites and social media apps have made it much easier for the public to spend more on gifts for their loved ones. Although some believe festivals should not be commercialised, others believe the increase in spending is good for the economy and public happiness.
Festivals are an important part of society. They reflect people’s wishes, beliefs, faiths, and attitudes towards life. They are occasions that allow us to relax and enjoy life, and forget about our work for a little while. They help us understand where we came from, who we are, and what to appreciate. And if you study festivals carefully, you may be surprised to find that different cultures actually have a lot in common after all.
Unit 1 | Reading for Writing
MY AMAZING NAADAM EXPERIENCE
I experienced the Naadam Festival in China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region for the first time this year. The festival falls on the fourth day of the six month of the lunar calendar, usually lasting for three days. Naadam means “games”in Mongolian, and it is represented by three events: horse racing, wresting, and archery, which are all so exciting to watch!
On the first day, I set off to the games early with my friend Burin. I saw a lot of people wearing fancy Mongolian robes. Some others were chatting or taking photographs. Burin told me that Mongolians travel every year from near and far to attend the festival, just as their ancestors had done for centuries.
After the opening ceremony and some amazing performances, the wrestling competition began. Mongolian wrestling is different from the wrestling in the Olympic Games. There are no rounds, and wrestlers are not separated by weight. The wrestlers loses if any part of his body above his knee touches the ground. After singing some songs, the competitors danced onto the green field, waving their arms in the air as if they were eagles. I was quite moved by their show of strength and grace.
I absolutely enjoyed the archery, too, but the horse races were my favourite part. However, I was surprised to see that the riders were boys and girls! I heard it is because children are lighter and the horses can run faster and farther. At first, I was a little worried about the children’s safety, but Burin said, “Don’t worry. They’ve been riding horses all their lives. They’ll be just fine.”That was the moment I started to understand why people say “Horses are at the heart ofMongolian culture”. …
I’m finally back home now, feeling really tired, but celebrating Naadam with my friend was totally worth it. He invited me back for the winter to stay in a traditional Mongolian tent and eat hot pot. I can’t wait!
Unit 2 | Reading and Thinking
MOTHER OF TEN THOUSAND BABIES
“Life is precious. … To a person nothing is more precious than their life, and if they entrust me with that life, how could I refuse that trust, saying I’m cold, hungry, or tired?”These words of Dr Lin Qiaozhi give us a look into the heart of this amazing woman, and what carried her through a life of hard choices.
As a five-year-old girl, Lin Qiaozhi was deeply affected by her mother’s death. At age 18, instead of following the traditional path of marriage like the majority of girls, she chose to study medidne. “Why should girls learn so much? Finding a good husband should be their final goal!”her brother complained, thinking of the high tuition fees. She responded, “I’d rather stay single to study all my life!”
Eight years later, Lin graduated from Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) with the Wehai Scholarship, the highest prize given to graduates. She immediately became the first woman ever to be hired as a resident physician in the OB-GYN department of the PUMC Hospital. Within six months, she was named a chief resident physician, a position that usually took four years to achieve. After working for a few years, she was sent to study in Europe and then, in 1939, in the US. She greatly impressed her American colleagues, who invited her to stay. Dr Lin, however, rejected the offer. She wanted to serve the women and children at home.
In 1941, Dr Lin became the first Chinese woman ever to be appointed director of the OB-GYN department of the PUMC Hospital, but just a few months later, the department was closed because of the war. Thinking of all the people still in need of help, Dr Lin opened a private clinic. She charged very low fees to treat patients and often reduced costs for poor patients. At times she was even seen riding a donkey to faraway villages to provide medical care.
The new People’s Republic of China saw Dr Lin Qiaozhi playing a key role. In 1954, she was elected to the first National People’s Congress and, over the next several decades, she held many important positions. Her heart, however, was elsewhere. She was more interested in tending patients, publishing medical research on care for women and children, and training the next generation of doctors. “The OB-GYN department cares for two lives,”She told new staff in her department. “As doctors, we should be responsible for the patients and treat them as our sisters.”
Though Lin Qiaozhi never married, she was known as the “mother of ten thousand babies”, having delivered over 50,000 babies in her lifetime. Dr Lin did not retire until the day she died, 22 April 1983. Since she had no children of her own, she left her savings to a kindergarten and a fund for new doctors. And even as she lay dying, her final thoughts were for others: “I’m ready to go,”she said. “Don’t try to rescue me any more. Don’t waste the medicine any more.”
Unit 2 | Reading for Writing
THE STONE IN THE ROAD
Once upon a time there was a king who often thought, “Nothing good can come to a nation whose people only complain and expect others to solve their problems.”One day, he had an idea.
Early one morning, the king disguised himself and went to a local village. He placed a large stone in the middle of the main street and hid gold coins under the stone. Then he hid behind a huge maple tree and watched.
The first person down the street was a milkman with his cart. He crashed into the stone, pilling the milk everywhere, “What fool put this stone here?”he shouted. He picked himself up and angrily went away.
After a while, a group of women came along, each balancing a pot of water on her head. One woman tripped over the stone and her water pot went crashing to the ground. She picked herself up and limped away in tears. Neither she nor her friends thought about moving the stone out of the road.
The king watched all day as many people complained about the stone, but he found nobody making an attempt to move it. The king was in despair. “Is there no one in this village who feels any responsibility to keep their neighbours from harm?”
Just then, the king saw a young girl coming along. She was the daughter of a local farmer. She had been working all day and was very tired. But when she saw the stone, she said to herself, “This stone is a danger to anyone who comes down the street after dark. I’ll move it out of the way.”
The girl pushed the stone with all her might. After a great deal of effort, she finally succeeded in moving it to the side of the street. Imagine her surprise when she saw the gold coins where the stone had been!
Just then, the king stepped out from behind the tree. “Oh sir,”the girl said, “does this gold belong to you? If not, we surely must find the owner, for he will certainly miss it.”
The king said, “My dear, the gold is mine. I put it in the road and moved the stone over it. Now the gold is yours, because you are the only person who has learnt the lesson I wanted to teach my people.”
Unit 3 | Reading and Thinking
Scan Li Lan’s travel journal and find out the place
Wednesday, 21 June
Today was my first day back in San Francisco after camping in the Redwood Forest and visiting the wine country of Napa Valley. I have to admit that it definitely feels good to be back in the city again. And what a city—a city that was able to rebuild itself after the earthquake that occurred in 1906. There are so many beautiful old buildings—many siting on top of big hills, offering great views of the city, the ocean, and the Golden Gate Bridge.
My hotel is near downtown, in the Mission District, one of the oldest parts of the city. Many of the people living here are from Mexico or Central America. This district used to be a poor area of town, but is now a centre for art, music, and food. In fact, an art movement called the “Mission School”started here. It’s influenced by graffiti art and comic art. I walked around looking at the street art for a few hours. It was quite modern and lively. Afterwards, I ate some delicious Mexican-Chinese noodles from a food truck. A real mix of cultures here!
In the afternoon, I headed to a local museum that showed the historical changes in California.I learnt that America got California from Mexico in 1848. In the same year, gold was discovered near San Francisco, which started a gold rush. Over 300,000 people came from all over the world to seek their fortune, and San Francisco quickly became a big city. Many Chinese arrived during this period. To earn a living, some opened up shops and restaurants in Chinatown. Many others found jobs on farms, joined the gold rush, or went to build the railway that joined California to the eastern region of the country. The museum did a really good job of showing how America was built by immigrants from different countries and cultures. When these immigrants left their countries, they carried a bit of home in their hearts, and built a new home here.
This evening, I went to Chinatown. There were so many cafés and restaurants to choose from. I selected a Cantonese restaurant that served its food on beautiful china plates. What great food!
That’s enough for today. Tomorrow evening, I’m going to a jazz bar in the Richmond Distinct. Can’t wait!
Unit 3 | Reading for Writing
WELCOME TO CHINATOWN!
The Chinatown in San Francisco is the biggest in America, and also the oldest. It is a very popular tourist draw that receives more visitors each year than even the Golden Gate Bridge. The climate is mild all year round, meaning it is always a good time to visit.
Historically, Chinese immigrants settled in the area during the railroad construction and gold rush period. What started as a residential area for Chinese immigrants then turned into a centre tor Chinese culture. The majority of residents in Chinatown are still ethnic Chinese, many of whom do not speak English fluently. This allows visitors to experience a real taste of China.
Most of Chinatown was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake, but the city and residents rebuilt it, taking care to include lots of Chinese architecture. Traditionally, visitors enter Chinatown through the legendary Dragon Gate, which was built using materials donated from China. Other famous sites include the Tin How Temple and Bank of Canton, to name but a few. Visitors can also spend hours just exploring the interesting sights, smells, and sounds of China. Portsmouth Square is also a key site, being the centre of Chinatown. It has a long and famous history, with the author Robert Louis Stevenson having spent much time writing there. These days, the square is a great place to see traditional Chinese culture in real life, such as games of Chinese chess, and people practising tai chi.
The stores in the Chinatown offer a unique range of souvenirs, goods, and clothing. All kinds of traditional Chinese herbal medicine can be found, too, and there are Chinese tea stores, where visitors can taste and buy varieties of Chinese tea.
But perhaps what many tourists and San Franciscans treasure most about Chinatown is its food. There is Chinese food to suit everyone’s taste, with traditional dishes from all over China.
Chinatowns are an important part of the diverse culture of the USA. They allow visitors who have never been to China to experience traditional Chinese culture first hand.
Unit 4 | Reading and Thinking
SPACE: THE FINAL FRONTIER
“Are we alone? What’s out there?”Looking up at the stars, people have always wanted to learn more about space, and scientists work hard to find answers. They make vehicles to carry brave people into space to find out the secrets of the universe. They also really wish to discover other planets that are suitable enough to support life.
Before the mid-20th century, most people felt travelling into space was an impossible dream. However, some scientists were determined to help humans realise their dream to explore space. After many experiments, they succeeded in making rockets that could escape Earth’s gravity. On 4 October 1957, the Sputnik 1 satellite was lunched by the USSR and successfully orbited around Earth. Afterwards, the USSR focused on sending people into space, and on 12 April 1961, Yuri Gagarin became the first person in the world to go into space. Over eight years later, on 20 July 1969, American astronaut Neil Armstrong stepped onto the moon, famously saying, “That’s one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.”Following this, many more goals were achieved. For example, America’s NASA space agency launched Voyager 1 on 5 September 1977 to study deep space, and it still transmits data today.
Although scientists try to make sure nothing goes wrong, accidents can still happen. All the astronauts on the USSR’s Soyuz 11 and America’s Challenger died during their missions. These disasters made everyone sad and disappointed , but the desire to explore the universe never died. This is because people believe in the importance of carrying on space exploration despite the huge risks. An example of this ongoing work is the International Space Station. It orbits Earth and has astronauts from different countries on board, providing a continuous human presence in space.
China’s space programme started later than those of Russia and the US, but it has made great progress in a short time. China became the third country in the world to independently send humans into space in 2003, when Yang Liwei successfully orbited Earth in the Shenzhou 5 spacecraft. Then Shenzhou 6 and 7 completed a second manned orbit and the first Chinese spacewalk, followed by the vehicle Jade Rabbit being sent to the moon to study its surface. After that, China launched the Tiangong 2 space lab into space and Tianzhou1 to dock with it. This signalled one step further in China’s plan to establish a space station in the future. More recently, China has sent Chang’e 4 to explore the surface of the far side of the moon to make measurements and observations.
The future of space exploration remains bright. Europe, the US, and China all have plans to further study and explore planets like Mars and Jupiter. Despite the difficulties, scientists hope future discoveries will not only enable us to understand how the universe began, but also help us survive well into the future.
Unit 4 | Reading for Writing
IS EXPLORING SPACE A WASTE OF TIME AND MONEY?
Countries around the globe are spending billions of dollars and lots of time on various space missions, whether to Mars or other planets much further away. Some people argue that we should stop wasting time and money exploring space. Instead, we should feed the world’s poor and find immediate solutions to other problems, such as pollution and fatal diseases. However, others feel this is a shallow view which fails to realise how exploring space helps us.
Firstly, exploring space has already made a difference in the fight against world hunger. It has
directly resulted in the many satellites that now orbit Earth. A number of the satellites record data on land and weather patterns. Then the data is transmitted to scientists on Earth. After careful analysis, the scientists can provide useful recommendations and advice for farmers. As a result, space-based science has helped farming in its efforts to grow enough food to feed Earth’s increasing population.
Secondly, space exploration has already promoted technological improvements that benefit us all. High-end products around the world are made to a higher standard now because of advanced technology which was first created to meet the requirements for space exploration. For example, space technologies have helped the research and development of different types of new material. They have also helped companies make better heart monitors and other machines that doctors regularly use. Today, space technologies are widely used in all kinds of industries, and everyday products such as GPS, memory foam pillows, and smartphone cameras are changing our lives.
Finally, sending astronauts into space has helped people to think about the world’s problems and even to find ways to solve them. Seeing pictures of our planet as an island in a black sea made people realise that our planet’s resources are limited. In order to provide for such a rapidly increasing population, scientists are trying to find other planets that could one day be our new home. The greatest attention at present is on Mars because it is closer to Earth. In the future, humans may live on both planets.
In closing, exploring space provides the world with many different benefits. Therefore, it should continue so as to provide new and better solutions to people’s short-term and long-term problems.
Unit 5 | Reading and Thinking
THE MILLION POUND BANK NOTE
ACT 1, SCENE 3
Narrator: Two rich brothers, Roderick and Oliver, have made a bet. Oliver believes that with a million-pound bank note a man could live a month in London. His brother Roderick doubts it. They see a poor young man walking outside their house. It is Henry Adams.
Roderick: Young man, would you step inside a moment, please?
Henry: Who? Me, sir?
Roderick: Yes, you.
Servant: (opening a door) Good morning, sir. Would you please come in?
(Henry enters the house)
Roderick: How do you do, Mr … er …?
Henry: Adams. Henry Adams.
Oliver: Come and sit down, Mr Adams.
Henry: Thank you.
Roderick: You’re an American?
Henry: That’s right, from San Francisco.
Roderick: May we ask what you’re doing in this country and what your plans are?
Henry: Well, I can’t say that I have any plans. As a matter of fact, I landed in Britain by accident. 亨利：嗯，谈不上有什么计划。事实上，我在英国上岸是偶然的。
Oliver: How is that possible?
Henry: Well, I had my own boat. About a month ago, I was sailing, and towards night I found myself carried out to sea by a strong wind. The next morning I was spotted by a ship.
Oliver: And it was the ship that brought you to England.
Henry: Yes. I went to the American consulate to seek help, but … Anyway, I didn’t dare to try again. (The brothers smile at each other.)
Roderick: Well, you mustn’t worry about that. It’s an advantage.
Henry: I’m afraid I don’t quite follow you, sir.
Roderick: Tell us, what sort of work did you do in America?
Henry: I worked for a mining company. Could you offer me work here?
Roderick: Patience. If you don’t mind, may I ask you how much money you have?
Henry: Well, to be honest, I have none.
Oliver: (happily) What luck! Brother, what luck!
Henry: Well, it may seem lucky to you but not to me! If this is your idea of some kind of joke, I don’t think it’s very funny. Now if you’ll excuse me, I ought to be on my way.
Roderick: Please don’t go. You mustn’t think we don’t care about you. Oliver, give him the letter.
Oliver: Yes, I was about to go get the letter. Wait! (getting it from a desk and giving it to Henry) The letter.
Henry: (taking it carefully) For me?
Roderick: For you. (Henry starts to open it) Oh, no, you’d better not open it. You can’t open it until two o’clock.
Henry: Oh, this is silly.
Roderick: Not silly. There’s money in it.
Henry: Oh, no. I don’t want your charity. I just want a job that earns an honest income.
Roderick: We know you’re hard-working. That’s why we’ve given you the letter. (to the servant) Show Mr Adams out.
Oliver: Good luck, Mr Adams.
Henry: Well, why don’t you explain what this is all about?
Roderick: You’ll soon know. In exactly an hour and a half.
Servant: This way, sir.
Roderick: Not until 2 o’clock. Promise?
Henry: Promise. Goodbye.
Unit 5 | Reading for Writing
THE MILLON POUND BANK NOTE
ACT 2, SCENE 1
Narrator: Henry is walking along the street holding the bank note in his hand. His coat is worn in several places. He sees a sign for a tailor’s shop.
Henry: (entering the shop) I’d like to have a suit coat.
1st Clerk: (in a rude manner) See him there. (pointing to another clerk)
2nd Clerk: Ready-made suits? Downstairs.
Henry: (after going down some stairs) Can you show me a suit, please?
3rd Clerk: Yes, I can, sir. This way, please. Ah, here we are, the very thing you need.
1st Clerk: (pulling the 3rd clerk aside and whispering) Mr Reid says you’d better serve him quick and get him out quick!
3rd Clerk: I know what I’m doing. I’ve got eyes, haven’t I?
Henry: It’s a little too bright, isn’t it?
3rd Clerk: (looking at him with a frown) It’s all we have in your size.
Henry: Well, I suppose it ought to do for now. I’ll take it.
3rd Clerk: Good. Shall I put it in a box?
Henry: No. I’ll wear it. Oh, I’d rather not pay you now. I’d like to pay in a month. You see, I don’t have any small change.
3rd Clerk: (trying not to show he’s angry) I suppose a gentleman like you only carries very large bills.
Henry: Now, you shouldn’t judge people by their clothes. I just don’t want to cause you trouble with a large note.
3rd Clerk: It’s no trouble at all.
Henry: In that case, there’s no problem. (He gives the clerk the bank note. The clerk drops Henry’s coat. Then he folds the bill and slowly unfolds it again, as if looking at something he can’t believe is there.)
Owner: Well, what seems to be the trouble?
Henry: I’m just waiting for my change.
Owner: Give him his change, Todd. Get going. (after getting the bank note from Todd) Would it… could it be the one I saw in the papers last week? I remember thinking that never would I hold such a note as this… (to Henry) Oh, take off this coat, sir. (to Todd) Go get the others, Todd! (to Henry again) Allow me, sir! This way, sir.
店主：给他找零钱，特德。快点(从特德那里拿到钞票后)会不会是……是我上周在报纸上看到的那张百万英镑？记得当时我以为我(手里)永远不会握着这样一张钞票……(对亨利说) 哦，先生，脱下这件外套。(对特德说)特德，快去取别的衣服过来！(再次对亨利说) 先生，请让我来帮您！先生，这边请。
(in another part of the shop, where there is a wide range of options for Henry to choose from) (在商店的另一个地方，亨利可以有各种各样的选择)
Henry: This is nice, but I really don’t need it.
Owner: Never mind. (with a broad smile) Oh, it’s perfect! It was made for some king but he’ll just have to wait. You’ll need many suits for many occasions. Yes, indeed you will.
Henry: Wait a minute. I only came here to get a suit coat to wear today. I dare not buy all these things. You would have to wait a long time to get paid.
Owner: A long time, sir? Why, you don’t have to worry about that!
Henry: Well, all right. I’ll take the suit coat for now and get the others later.
Owner: Fine, fine. Your address, sir?
Henry: I don’t have one. Er… I’m moving.
Owner: Of course you are! That’s very normal! A busy man, I’m sure.
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